The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena: A doctrine and an appeal based on it, a program for changing life, and A social structure that exists in time and space.
One thing that soon becomes clear to any one interested in anarchism is that there is not one single form of anarchism. Rather, there are different schools of anarchist thought, different types of anarchism which have many disagreements with each other on numerous issues.
This means that anarchists, while all sharing a few key ideas, can be grouped into broad categories, depending on the economic arrangements that they consider to be most suitable to human freedom.
However, all types of anarchists share a basic approach. To quote Rudolf Rocker: Within the Socialist movement itself the Anarchists represent the viewpoint that the war against capitalism must be at the same time a war against all institutions of political power, for in history economic exploitation has always gone hand in hand with political and social oppression.
The exploitation of man by man and the domination of man over man are inseparable, and each is the condition of the other. The main differences are between "individualist" and "social" anarchists, although the economic arrangements each desire are not mutually exclusive.
Of the two, social anarchists communist-anarchists, anarcho-syndicalists and so on have always been the vast majority, with individualist anarchism being restricted mostly to the United States. In this section we indicate the differences between these main trends within the anarchist movement.
|Shell shock and PTSD||German soldiers, entrenched in the Belgian medieval town of Ypres, attacked with 6, steel canisters of chlorine gas. The wind carried the lethal gas, which was two-and-a-half times heavier than air, across to the British enemies, over a front that ran along some four miles.|
|D.H. Lawrence | English writer | urbanagricultureinitiative.com||Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much.|
As will soon become clear, while social and individualist anarchists both oppose the state and capitalism, they disagree on the nature of a free society and how to get there.
In a nutshell, social anarchists prefer communal solutions to social problems and a communal vision of the good society i. Individualist anarchists, as their name suggests, prefer individual solutions and have a more individualistic vision of the good society.
However, we must not let these difference cloud what both schools have in common, namely a desire to maximise individual freedom and end state and capitalist domination and exploitation. In addition to this major disagreement, anarchists also disagree over such issues as syndicalism, pacifism, "lifestylism," animal rights and a whole host of other ideas, but these, while important, are only different aspects of anarchism.
Beyond a few key ideas, the anarchist movement like life itself is in a constant state of change, discussion and thought -- as would be expected in a movement that values freedom so highly. The most obvious thing to note about the different types of anarchism is that "[n]one are named after some Great Thinker; instead, they are invariably named either after some kind of practice, or, most often, organisational principle.
Anarchists like to distinguish themselves by what they do, and how they organise themselves to go about doing it. Far from it, as can be seen in section A. Anarchists simply recognise that to call your theory after an individual is a kind of idolatry.
Anarchists know that even the greatest thinker is only human and, consequently, can make mistakes, fail to live up to their ideals or have a partial understanding of certain issues see section H. Moreover, we see that the world changes and, obviously, what was a suitable practice or programme in, say, industrialising France of the s may have its limitations in 21st century France!
Consequently, it is to be expected that a social theory like anarchism would have numerous schools of thought and practice associated with it. Anarchism, as we noted in section A.
Anarchist ideas have developed in many different social situations and, consequently, have reflected those circumstances.
Most obviously, individualist anarchism initially developed in pre-industrial America and as a result has a different perspective on many issues than social anarchism.
As America changed, going from a predominantly pre-capitalist rural society to an industrialised capitalist one, American anarchism changed: But within the last twenty years the communist idea has made great progress, owning primarily to that concentration in capitalist production which has driven the American workingman [and woman] to grasp at the idea of solidarity, and, secondly, to the expulsion of active communist propagandists from Europe.
So while anarchists have their preferences on how they think a free society will, in general, be like and be created they are aware that other forms of anarchism and libertarian tactics may be more suitable for other people and social circumstances.
However, just because someone calls themselves or their theory anarchism does not make it so. Any genuine type of anarchism must share the fundamental perspectives of the movement, in other words be anti-state and anti-capitalist. Moreover, claims of anarchist "incoherence" by its critics are usually overblown.
Nor has it stopped sectarian conflict between them based on whose interpretation of the holy writings are the "correct" ones or who has used the "correct" quotes to bolster attempts to adjust their ideas and practice to a world significantly different from Europe in the s or Russia in the s.
At least anarchists are honest about their differences! Lastly, to put our cards on the table, the writers of this FAQ place themselves firmly in the "social" strand of anarchism. This does not mean that we ignore the many important ideas associated with individualist anarchism, only that we think social anarchism is more appropriate for modern society, that it creates a stronger base for individual freedom, and that it more closely reflects the sort of society we would like to live in.BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.
The history of Christian anarchism includes the Heresy of the Free Spirit in the Middle Ages, numerous Peasant revolts and the Anabaptists in the 16th century.
The libertarian tradition within Christianity surfaced again in the 18th century in the writings of William Blake and the American Adam Ballou reached anarchist conclusions in his Practical Christian Socialism in Clarke's Bookshop (established in ) is situated in Cape Town, South Africa and carries both new and second hand books on Southern Africa.
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from urbanagricultureinitiative.com In this article, Alan Woods deals with the main ideas of Karl Marx and their relevance to the crisis we're passing through today. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.