Retailing in antiquity[ edit ] Marketplace at Trajan's Forum, the earliest known example of permanent retail shopfronts Retail markets have existed since ancient times. Archaeological evidence for trade, probably involving barter systems, dates back more than 10, years.
Before we understand the morning star pattern, we need to understand two common price behaviors —gap up opening and gap down opening. Gaps a general term used to indicate both gap up and gap down are a common price behavior. A gap on a daily chart happens when the stock closes at one price but opens on the following day at a different price.
The numbers are so good that on Tuesday morning the buyers are willing to buy the stock at any price. This enthusiasm would lead to stock price jumping to Rs.
This means though there was no trading activity between Rs. This is called a gap up opening. Gap up opening portrays bullish sentiment. In the following Financial analysis oh hul the green arrows points to a gap up openings.
Gap down opening — Similar to gap up opening, a gap down opening shows the enthusiasm of the bears. In the example stated above, if the quarterly results were bad, the sellers would want to get rid of the stock and hence the market on Tuesday could open directly at Rs.
In this case, though there was no trading activity between Rs. Gap down opening portrays bearish sentiment. In the following image the green arrows points to a gap down opening. It is a downtrend reversal pattern. The pattern is formed by combining 3 consecutive candlesticks.
The morning star appears at the bottom end of a down trend. In the chart below the morning star is encircled. The morning star pattern involves 3 candlesticks sequenced in a particular order. The pattern is encircled in the chart above.
The thought process behind the morning star is as follow: Market is in a downtrend placing the bears in absolute control. Market makes successive new lows during this period On day 1 of the pattern P1as expected the market makes a new low and forms a long red candle.
The large red candle shows selling acceleration On day 2 of the pattern P2 the bears show dominance with a gap down opening.
This reaffirms the position of the bears After the gap down opening, nothing much happens during the day P2 resulting in either a doji or a spinning top. On the gap up opening itself the bears would have been a bit jittery.
Encouraged by the gap up opening buying persists through the day, so much so that it manages to recover all the losses of P1 The expectation is that the bullishness on P3 is likely to continue over the next few trading sessions and hence one should look at buying opportunities in the market Unlike the single and two candlestick patterns, both the risk taker and the risk averse trader can initiate the trade on P3 itself.
Waiting for a confirmation on the 4th day may not be necessary while trading based on a morning star pattern. The long trade setup for a morning star would be as follows: Initiate a long trade at the close of P3 around 3: P1 should be a red candle With a gap down opening, P2 should be either a doji or a spinning top P3 opening should be a gap up, plus the current market price at 3: The evening star is a bearish equivalent of the morning star.
The evening star appears at the top end of an uptrend. Like the morning star, the evening star is a three candle formation and evolves over three trading sessions. The reasons to go short on an evening star are as follows: The closing on P2 sets in a bit of panic for bulls On the 3rd day of the pattern P3the market opens gap down and progresses into a red candle.
The price action on P3 sets the bulls in panic The expectation is that the bulls will continue to panic and hence the bearishness will continue over the next few trading session. Therefore one should look at shorting opportunities The trade setup for an evening star is as follows: Short the stock on P3, around the close of 3: P1 should be a blue candle P2 should be a doji or a spinning top with a gap up opening P3 should be a red candle with a gap down opening.
The current market price at 3: Remember during the study of candlesticks we have not dealt with the trade exit aka targets. We will do so in the next chapter.Necsa Wins Award. Date: Receiving the award on behalf of Necsa Group CEO Mr Phumzile Tshelane, (from LtoR) Mr Danny Motlauthi, Ms Ntebatse Matube, Mr John Nkwana and Mr Clive Mokoena.
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