History[ edit ] Griffith's experimentreported in by Frederick Griffith was the first experiment suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation. Horizontal genetic transfer was then described in Seattle inin a paper demonstrating that the transfer of a viral gene into Corynebacterium diphtheriae created a virulent strain from a non-virulent strain,  also simultaneously solving the riddle of diphtheria that patients could be infected with the bacteria but not have any symptoms, and then suddenly convert later or never and giving the first example for the relevance of the lysogenic cycle. As Jian, Rivera and Lake put it:
HGT is common in the microbial world including archaea and bacteria, where HGT mechanisms are widely understood and recognized as an important force in evolution.
In eukaryotes, HGT now appears to occur more frequently than originally thought. Many studies are currently detecting novel HGT events among distinct lineages using next-generation sequencing. Most examples to date include gene transfers from bacterial donors to recipient organisms including fungi, plants, and animals.
In plants, one well-studied example of HGT is the transfer of the tumor-inducing genes T-DNAs from some Agrobacterium species into their host plant genomes. The transferred genes do not produce the usual disease phenotype, and appear to have a role in evolution of these plants.
We also discuss the possible evolutionary impact of T-DNA acquisition on plants. Introduction Horizontal gene transfer HGT can be defined as the acquisition of genetic material from another organism without being its offspring.
It contrasts with vertical gene transfer, which is the acquisition of genetic material from an ancestor. HGT is a universal phenomenon and occurs frequently among prokaryotes.
Bacteria have acquired a variety of important traits including antibiotic resistance, pathogenesis and metabolic pathways, via HGT. These horizontal gene acquisitions enabled bacteria to explore new habitats and hence facilitated their rapid evolution Maiden, ; Ochman et al.
In contrast to its rather common occurrence in prokaryotes, examples of HGT in eukaryotes have been reported only infrequently. However, that appears to be changing as recent discoveries indicate the possible contribution of HGT to the acquisition of traits with adaptive significance, suggesting that HGT is an important driving force in the evolution of eukaryotes, as well as prokaryotes.
In this paper, we review HGT in higher organisms emphasizing examples involving Agrobacterium species and plants. We also discuss the possible evolutionary impact of the transferred genes on their respective hosts.
|Introduction||Features Bacteria and Humans Have Been Swapping DNA for Millennia Bacteria inhabit most tissues in the human body, and genes from some of these microbes have made their way to the human genome. Could this genetic transfer contribute to diseases such as cancer?|
HGT in Eukaryotes Horizontal gene transfer played a pivotal role in the origin of eukaryotes. Endosymbiosis and the subsequent genetic integration of entire organisms gave rise to the mitochondria and plastids Talianova and Janousek, Advances in sequencing technologies in combination with ever increasing amounts of sequence data have facilitated the identification of additional examples of HGT in eukaryotes.
In most instances, these were identified by chance while sequencing for other purposes or as a result of phylogenetic incongruences while attempting to establish evolutionary relationships.
Examples include DNA transfer from bacteria, fungi and plants to bdelloid rotifers Gladyshev et al. A particularly interesting example of HGT is the transfer of fungal genes to the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Moran and Jarvik, Carotenoid biosynthesis genes are responsible for the body pigmentation in pea aphids.
Ladybugs Coccinellidae prefer to attack red aphids while parasitic wasps are more likely to lay their eggs in green aphids. Despite being one of the oldest groups of land plants, the majority of living ferns resulted from a relatively recent diversification following the arrival of angiosperms.
In order to exploit the new understory habitats created by angiosperm dominated ecosystems, ferns evolved strategies to thrive under the low light conditions created by the angiosperm canopy. In adapting to these conditions, ferns acquired an unconventional chimeric photoreceptor, called neochrome, that fuses red sensing phytochrome and blue sensing phototropin modules into a single gene, thereby optimizing phototropic responses Li et al.
The recent analysis of transcriptomes and 40 genomes of plants and algae demonstrated that ferns acquired this gene from hornworts a bryophyte lineage via HGT about million year ago Li et al.Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Transcript of Carotenoid Gene Transfer from Fungi to Aphids.
Carotenoid Gene base pair substitution of G to A cuasing amino acid substitution of glutamine to lysine tor locus responsible for the enzyme carotenoid desaturase which is involved in producing the red torulene pigment (AKA Horizontal Gene Transfer) DNA is NOT from parent to. Gene swap. GENE SWAP: Horizontal or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is a regular event among bacteria, and research over the past decade has shown that microbes .
Fungi to aphid gene transfer is the only discovered instance between Fungi and Animal kingdoms Why should any of this matter? The gene transfered is nutritionally important! Carotenoid cloning and plant crops What if humans could receive our own carotenoid producing gene from fungi?
Implications: Horizontal gene transfer may play a. Such transfer preserved the gene arrangement observed in certain fungi, in which the entire region, encompassing divergently transcribed carotenoid desaturase and carotenoid synthase–carotenoid cyclase loci, comprises only about 5 kilobases (kb) (25, 26).
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring (reproduction).