Introduction Despite 50 years of development experience, fundamental questions remain unanswered. The world still lacks a comprehensive theoretical framework that adequately explains such phenomenon as the accelerating velocity of development exhibited by East Asian countries, the failure of Malthusian projections, the growing contribution of non-material resources not subject to depletion, the apparent failure of market policies in the transition of Eastern Europe, and conflicting predictions about the future of work based on the contrary recent experiences of North America and Western Europe. A profusion of economic theories provide explanations for specific expressions of development, but none unite the pieces into a unified theory that adequately defines the central principles, process and stages of development. The formulation of a comprehensive theory of development would make conscious the world's experience over the past years, reveal enormous untapped potentials and vastly accelerate the speed of future progress.
Theory of Knowledge Deciding what to Believe How do you decide what to believe? Friends tell you one thing, authorities say something else, and the evidence points in yet another direction. Truth is correspondence with reality. Because we are deluged by a constant flood of information from a wide variety of sources, each of us must evaluate and decide for ourselves what information is reliable and what is not.
It separates well-founded beliefs from assumptionsrumors, and myths. Definitions How we decide what to believe. The theory of knowledge provides answers to the important questions: Critical thinking is the mental discipline of discernment, analysis, and evaluation.
It is purposeful and reflective judgment. People who apply an effective theory of knowledge are considered inquisitive, prudent, vigilant, scrupulous, meticulous, and wise. Journalism Standards are the practices used in obtaining and reporting newsworthy events.
These practices typically consider the principles of: Opinions and advertisements are clearly separated from news, excerpts are presented in context, sources are attributed, facts are checked with multiple independent sources, contrasting views are included, and other precautions are taken to increase the reliability of the reports.
Information Sources We typically consult a wide variety of information sources to form the many off-hand opinions we arrive at each day.
Although much of the information we are exposed to is inconsequential, it is essential to obtain reliable information before making important decisions and choosing your most important and consequential beliefs.
A variety of information sources are described below, with a discussion of their reliability, limitations, inaccuracies, errors, and difficulties. Evidence We directly observe the world every day.
We can see for ourselves that the sky is blue and the grass is green. We can easily feel that the sun is warm and ice is cold.
We can hear dogs bark and birds chirp. Certainly first-hand examination of direct evidence is the most reliable basis for forming beliefs. People rarely dispute these easily verified matters of fact.
Disputed beliefs usually arise when direct evidence is not readily available, incomplete, ambiguous, or is open to a variety of interpretations.
Direct evidence is the only primary source of information, therefore it is the most reliable.“It is only in respect to knowledge that a business can be distinct, can therefore produce something that has a value in the market place.”.
PETER DRUCKER, Managing for Results Your enterprise — business, government agency, NGO, even your family or household — has as its ultimate purpose or mission producing value — benefits, outcomes, and results in some specific form, for example. Theory of Development.
by Garry Jacobs, Robert Macfarlane, and N.
Asokan [presented to Pacific Rim Economic Conference, Bangkok, Jan , ]. Based on the knowledge-based view (KBV), the purpose of this study is to explore the impact of scientific knowledge resources on innovative performance, as well as the mechanisms, in the science-based innovation practice of biotechnological industry.
Misinterpretations of the scientific process. MISCONCEPTION: Science is a collection of facts.
CORRECTION: Because science classes sometimes revolve around dense textbooks, it's easy to think that's all there is to science: facts in a urbanagricultureinitiative.com that's only part of the picture.
Science is a body of knowledge that one can learn about in textbooks, but it is also a process. Theory of Development. by Garry Jacobs, Robert Macfarlane, and N. Asokan [presented to Pacific Rim Economic Conference, Bangkok, Jan , ].
Decision making under risk is presented in the context of decision analysis using different decision criteria for public and private decisions based on decision criteria, type, and quality of available information together with risk assessment.