The project faced the sorts of challenges that are common when trying to realign organizational structure with the new realities of managing by projects. In addition, there were added cultural barriers because the company was in the financial services sector-a very traditional industry, known for conservatism in management approaches. Project management consultants were called in because, for the first time, the organization was undertaking a multi-year enterprise-wide development program that cut across multiple functional departments, instead of following their old pattern of doing projects within departments.
Neural connectivity patterns have long attracted the attention of neuroanatomists Cajal; Brodmann, ; Swanson, and play crucial roles in determining the functional properties of neurons and neuronal systems.
In more highly evolved nervous systems, brain connectivity can be described at several levels of scale. These levels include individual synaptic connections that link individual neurons at the microscale, networks connecting neuronal populations at the mesoscale, as well as brain regions linked by fiber pathways at the macroscale.
At the microscale, detailed anatomical and physiological studies have revealed many of the basic components and interconnections of microcircuits in the mammalian cerebral cortex. At the mesoscale, they are arranged into networks of columns and minicolumns.
At the macroscale, very large numbers of neurons and neuronal populations forming distinct brain regions are interconnected by inter-regional pathways, forming large-scale patterns of anatomical connectivity.
Anatomical connections at all levels of scale are both specific and variable.
Specificity is found in the arrangement of individual synaptic connections between morphologically and physiologically distinct neuronal types, in the spatial extent and branching pattern of axonal arborizations, and in long-range connectivity between neural structures such as cell nuclei or brain regions.
Variability is found in the shape of individual neurons and their processes, as well as in the size, placement and interconnection of large-scale structures.
Variability may be measured between corresponding structures in brains of individuals of the same species. In addition, neural structures within the same individual vary across time, as a result of experiential and developmental processes of growth, plasticity and repair.
It is likely that anatomical variability is one of the main sources for functional variability, expressed in neural dynamics and behavioral performance.
The remainder of this article will focus on brain connectivity at the large-scale, i. The subject is more extensively covered in Jirsa and McIntosh and Sporns Modes of Brain Connectivity When applied to the brain, the term connectivity refers to several different and interrelated aspects of brain organization Horwitz, A fundamental distinction is that between structural connectivity, functional connectivity and effective connectivity Friston, Although this distinction is often cited in the context of functional neuroimagingit is equally applicable to neuronal networks at other levels of organization, e.
Anatomical connectivity refers to a network of physical or structural synaptic connections linking sets of neurons or neuronal elements, as well as their associated structural biophysical attributes encapsulated in parameters such as synaptic strength or effectiveness.
The physical pattern of anatomical connections is relatively stable at shorter time scales seconds to minutes.
At longer time scales hours to daysstructural connectivity patterns are likely to be subject to significant morphological change and plasticity. It is important to note that currently only invasive tracing studies are capable of unanimously demonstrating direct axonal connections. By contrast, diffusion weighted imaging techniques, such as DTI, have an insufficient spatial resolution, but are useful as whole brain in vivo markers of temporal changes in fibre tracts.
Functional connectivity, in contrast, is fundamentally a statistical concept.
In general, functional connectivity captures deviations from statistical independence between distributed and often spatially remote neuronal units. Statistical dependence may be estimated by measuring correlation or covariancespectral coherence or phase-locking.
Functional connectivity is often calculated between all elements of a system, regardless of whether these elements are connected by direct structural links. Unlike structural connectivity, functional connectivity is highly time-dependent.
Statistical patterns between neuronal elements fluctuate on multiple time scales, some as short as tens or hundreds of milliseconds. It should be noted that functional connectivity does not make any explicit reference to specific directional effects or to an underlying structural model.
Effective connectivity may be viewed as the union of structural and functional connectivity, as it describes networks of directional effects of one neural element over another.
In principle, causal effects can be inferred through systematic perturbations of the system, or, since causes must precede effects in time, through time series analysis.Functional Transition Assessment attempts to integrate the student into the work force while the student is still in high school.
It provides a temporary bridge or support structure for the student making the transition from an educational to a vocational environment. Oct 21, · Brain connectivity refers to a pattern of anatomical links ("anatomical connectivity"), of statistical dependencies ("functional connectivity") or of causal interactions ("effective connectivity") between distinct units within a nervous urbanagricultureinitiative.com units correspond to individual neurons, neuronal populations, or anatomically .
Restructuring Organization: Transition from functional to matrix organizational structure This article is authored by Janmenjaya Sharma, Manager Organization Development with Raysut Cement Company (RCC), Oman, Fellow of the Asian Human Resource Board (Aspi).
Purple Matrix Ltd was founded in March with a vision of offering value for money IT services to small and medium sized companies in London. The Functional to Matrix Transition Karen R. J. White, PMP RECENTLY PARTICIPATED IN A CONSULTING ASSIGNMENT WHICH INVOLVED MOVING A LARGE ITS ORGANIZATION from an old-style functional-department organization structure towards one more friendly to proj- .
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