O3 O4 This design controls for all of the seven threats to validity described in detail so far. An explanation of how this design controls for these threats is below. History--this is controlled in that the general history events which may have contributed to the O1 and O2 effects would also produce the O3 and O4 effects.
Mechanism[ edit ] A two-party system often develops in a plurality voting system. In this system, voters have a single vote, which they can cast for a single candidate in their district, in which only one legislative seat is available. In plurality voting also referred to as first past the postin which the winner of the seat is determined purely by the candidate with the most votes, several characteristics can serve to discourage the development of third parties and reward the two major parties.
Duverger laid out two paths by which plurality voting Truism essay we must take some lead to fewer major parties: This puts geographically thinly spread parties at a significant disadvantage to geographically concentrated ones with the same overall level of public support.
An example of this is the Liberal Democrats in the United Kingdomwhose proportion of seats in the legislature is significantly less than their proportion of the national vote. The Green Party of Canada is also a good example. Another example was seen in the U. Gerrymandering is sometimes used to counteract such geographic difficulties in local politics but is controversial on a large scale.
These numerical disadvantages can create an artificial limit on the level at which a third party can engage in the political process. The second unique problem is both statistical and tactical. Duverger suggested an election in whichmoderate voters and 80, radical voters are voting for a single official.
If two moderate parties ran candidates and one radical candidate were to run, the radical candidate would win unless one of the moderate candidates gathered fewer than 20, votes. Observing this, moderate voters would be more likely to vote for the candidate most likely to gain more votes, with the goal of defeating the radical candidate.
Either the two parties must merge, or one moderate party must fail, as the voters gravitate to the two strong parties, a trend Duverger called polarization.
For example, the political chaos in the United States immediately preceding the Civil War allowed the Republican Party to replace the Whig Party as the progressive half of the American political landscape.
Loosely united on a platform of country-wide economic reform and federally funded industrialization, the decentralized Whig leadership failed to take a decisive stance on the slavery issueeffectively splitting the party along the Mason—Dixon line.
Southern rural planters, initially attracted by the prospect of federal infrastructure and schools, aligned with the pro-slavery Democrats, while urban laborers and professionals in the northern states, threatened by the sudden shift in political and economic power and losing faith in the failing Whig candidates, flocked to the increasingly vocal anti-slavery Republican Party.
In countries that use proportional representation PRa two-party system is less likely, especially in countries where the whole country forms a single constituency, as it does in Israelalong with low electoral thresholds to obtain office.
Israel 's electoral rules historically had an electoral threshold for a party to obtain a seat as low as one-percent of the vote; the threshold is 3. The number of votes received for a party determines the number of seats won, and new parties can thus develop an immediate electoral niche.
Duverger identified that the use of PR would make a two-party system less likely. However, other systems do not guarantee new parties access to the system: Malta provides an example of a stable two-party system using the single transferable votealthough it is worth noting that its presidential elections are won by a plurality, which may put a greater two-party bias in the system than in a purely proportional system.
Counterexamples[ edit ] Duverger did not regard this principle as absolute, suggesting instead that plurality would act to delay the emergence of new political forces and would accelerate the elimination of weakening ones,  whereas proportional representation would have the opposite effect.
The following examples are partly due to the effect of smaller parties that have the majority of their support concentrated in a small number of electorates rather than diluted across many electorates.
Riker noted that strong regional parties can distort matters, leading to more than two parties receiving seats in the national legislature, even if there are only two parties competitive in any single district.
The following example seems counter to the law: In the Philippines sinceno party has been able to control the House of Representatives ; although the party of the president usually has the plurality of seats, it still has to seek coalition partners to command a majority of seats.
It may be relevant that the Philippines' governance structure changed repeatedly before and that the country has many distinct social groups. The average number of candidates in the House of Representatives elections in every district is only 2.Problem 3: Are reasonably personable and take teaching seriously.
It will probably not be shocking to anyone who teaches here to learn that there are many people making a living teaching English in Korea who either have no interest in teaching, or are batshit-crazy troublemakers, or both. The Family Rankine. Henry Whyte wrote a prize essay which was published in by the Clan MacLean Association entitled “THE RANKINS Pipers to the MacLeans of Duart, and later to The MacLeans of Coll.”.
Oct 17, · Campus Watch demands academic integrity in North American Middle East studies (MES) programs. It reviews and critiques MES bias with the aim of improving education – keeping watch on scores of professors at hundreds of universities.
This homepage is my (Dr. Chong-ho Yu, Alex) online resource center. This particular section carries lessons on development and evaluation of Web-based instruction. Blog, at the web site of author Ursula K. Le Guin. Español Portugese.
his talk will attempt to answer three questions; what is classical education, why is it necessary in our day and what are its benefits?